A bird’s eye view of Scotland’s history

September 2, 2009

The Celtic Scots from whom the name Scotland is derived immigrated to Scotland from Ireland. There they introduced the Gaelic language and the clan system.
May 20th, 685 – the battle at Dunnichen
In 843 Scottish prince Kenneth Macalpine he formed an alliance with the Picts against the Vikings and became the first Scottish king
July 27th, 1054 – the battle at Dunsinane
In 1057-1093 Malcolm Canmore was crowned king. his wife the queen Margaret introduced English customs and the English language to Scotland.
August 15, 1057 – Lumphanan
October 20, 1164 – battle at Renfrew
1200 – King Edward 1 of England, known as the “hammer of the Scots” tried to incorporate Scotland into the English crown. a period of dispute over succession ensued but he is countered by two Scots, William Wallace and Robert the Bruce
October 2nd, 1263 – the battle of Largs
Alexander the 111 defeated the Norwegian army at the battle of Largs. as a result Norway surrendered the Hebrides to Scotland on the payment of 4,000 marks and an agreed annual payment of 100 marks.
November 11th, 1297 – William Wallace defeats Edward in the battle of sterling bridge
but the following year the Scots are beaten at Faulkirk
July 22, 1298 – the battle at Falkirk 1
1306 – Robert Bruce is crowned king of Scotland but is forced to flee from Edward.
may 22, 1308 – Meldrum
1314 – After Edward’s death Robert the Bruce is returned to power. He defeats the English at the battle on Bannockburn (June 24th, 1314). The wish of the Scots to remain independent is found in their plea to the pope in the declaration of Arbroath. Scotland fought long, bloody wars over the next 300 years to remain free. Unfortunately they also remained poor.

John Knox was instrumental in breaking the link between church and state. John, an Edinburgh churchman, played his part in the reformation in Scotland, which adopted a Presbyterian tradition.

1317 – With the coronation of Bruce’s grandson Robert the Stewart dynastic stability is re-established. the royal house, later bearing the name of Stuart rules continuously until early in the 17th century

April 6 1320 – declaration of Arbroath
“for we fight not for glory nor for riches nor for honour, but only and alone for freedom, which no good man surrenders but with his life”.
August 12th, 1332 – the battle at Dupplin Moor

December 25th, 1332 – the battle of Annan
July 19th, 1333 – Halidon Hill
August 19, 1388 – Otterburn
July 14, 1413-The battle of Harlaw. The title of the earldom of Ross was contested by Donald, lord of the isles, on behalf of his wife. Donald marched to Harlow with 10,000 men, against an army sent by the regent, Albany, on behalf of his son. The army was under the earl of mar’s son. The two exhausted armies withdrew. Thus the battle was neither lost nor won. Later, Albany forced Donald to sign a treaty surrendering all claims to the title.
October 23, 1448 – battle at Sark
July 22, 1484 – Lochmaben
June 11, 1488 – battle at Sauchieburn
September 9th, 1513 – the battle of flodden. there were but few homes that did not mourn the loss of a father, a son, or relative after the battle of flodden. the battle was one of the worst disasters in scottish history. king james 1v and many of his nobles were slain in this terrible battle.
November 24, 1542 – battle at Solway Moss

February 27th, 1545 – the battle of Ancrum / moor
September 10, 1547 – pinkie

1561
Mary Stuart ascends the throne, but is obliged to abdicate in 1567 in favour of her one year old son, James 6
May 13th, 1568 – Langside
October 3rd, 1594 – Glenlivet
1603 – following the death of Queen Elizabeth 1 of England, James 1v of Scotland becomes James the 1 of England (those following him to the throne were not as kind to the Scots) and with the personal union of the crowns the Stuarts rule Scotland and England for over a hundred years, interrupted only in 1649 – 1660 by the English civil war and the rule of Oliver Cromwell
June 19th, 1639 – the battle of bridge of Dee
September 1st, 1644 – battle at Tippermuir
September 13th, 1644 – the battle of Aberdeen
October 28th, 1644 – the battle at Fyvie
February 2nd, 1645 – Inverlochy
August 15th, 1645 – Killsyth
April 27, 1650 – the battle of Carbisdale
May 9th, 1645 – the battle of Auldearn
July 2nd, 1645 – the battle of Alford
September 13, 1645 – Philiphaugh
July 27, 1689 – Killiecrankie
September 3rd, 1550 – the battle at Dunbar
June 1st, 1679 – the battle of Drumclog
June 22, 1679 – the battle of Bothwell bridge
august 21, 1689 – the battle at Dunkeld
May 1st, 1690 – the battle of Cromdale
1692 – The Battle of Glencoe. The MacDonalds of Glencoe were brutally attacked and massacred by the Campbells who were given a signed order to extirpate the clan. One hundred and twenty of the MacDonald clan, including the chiefs’ two sons escaped through the deep cold snow in the night to the hills and glens.
1707 – Act of union, highland Scots joined in the rebellions of 1715 and 1745. They tried to restore the old and the young bonnie prince Charlie, pretenders to the throne of Scotland.

1714 -19 The British throne is passed to George 1 of Hanover. Followers of the house of Stewart try to establish the claim of the son of James 7/11 to the throne. The first up-rising mainly involved highland clans under the earl of mar. the main reason for its failure was that the lowland duke of Argyle, remained loyal to the crown and he sent an army to fight the rebels. The second attempt in 1719 is crushed at the outset.
November 13, 1715 – battle at Sheriffmuir
June 10th, 1719 – Glenshiel
1745-1746 3rd Jacobite uprising, let by “bonnie prince Charles, the grandson of the last James, is initially successful. However the Stuart prince fails to get the support of the rich lowlanders and the decisive battle of Culloden ends in a crushing defeat for the Jacobite. After the 1745 rebellion (civil war) the highland clearances began. Thousands were evicted from their crofts and the mass migration of Scots to other lands across the globe began.
September 21, 1745 – Prestonpans
April 16th, 1746 – the battle at Culloden
January 17th, 1746 – Falkirk 11
April 4th, 1845 – the battle at Dundee

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