History of the World War by Francis A. March

August 31, 2009

The First World War

Lasting 4 years, 3 months and fifteen days – a total of 1,567 days The World War beginning in 1914 was fought for the right of small nations to self-government and for the right of every country to the free use of the high seas. 28 nations took part – For 4 years Germany rolled up a record of victories.

June 28, 1914 Assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand, heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, and his wife, at Sarajevo, Bosnia.
July 28 Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia
July 29 Russian mobilization ordered
August 1 Germany declares war on Russia
1 France orders mobilization
2 Germany demands free passage through Belgium
3 Germany declares war on France
3 Belgium rejects Germany’s demands
4 Germany at war with Belgium – Troops under Gen. Von Kluck crosses the border.
Halted at Leige
4 Great Briton at war with Germany Kitchener becomes Secretary of War
5 President Wilson tenders good officers of the United States in interest of peace.
6 Austria-Hungary at war with Russia
7 Montenegro at war with Austria
7 Great Briton’s Expeditionary Force lands at Ostend, Calais, and Dunkirk
8 British seize German, Togoland
8 Serbia at war with Germany
8 Portugal announces readiness to stand by alliance with England
11 German cruisers Goeben and Breslau enter Dardanelles and are purchased by Turkey
12 Great Breton at war with Austria-Hungary
12 Montenegro at war with Germany
17 Belgium capital removed from Brussels to Antwerp.
19 Canadian Parliament authorizes raising expeditionary force.
20 Germany occupies Brussels
23 Japan at war with Germany Begins attack on Tsingtau.
24 Germans enter France near Lille.
25 Austria at war with Japan
26 Louvain sacked & burned by Germans. Viviani becomes premier of France
28 British fleet sinks three German cruisers & two destroyers off Heligoland
28 Austria declares war on Belgium
29 Russians invest Konigsberg, East Prussia. New Zealanders seize German SAMOA
30 Amiens occupied by Germans
31 Russian army of invasion in East Prussia defeated at Tannenberg by Germans under
Von Hindenburg
31 St. Petersburg name was changed to Petrograd by imperial degree.
SEPTEMBER 1914
3 Paris placed in state of siege: Government transferred to Bordeaux
4 Germans occupy Rheims
6 -10 The Battle of Marne
Von Kluck is defeated by Gen. Joffre the German army retreats
from Paris to the Soissons – Rheims line.
10 The Emden, a German cruiser, carries out raids in Bay of Bengal.
14 French reoccupy Amiens and Rheims
19 British forces begin operations in Southwest Africa
20 Rheims cathedral shelled by Germans
24 Allies occupy Peronne
25 The Australians seize German New Guinea
28 Anglo French forces invade the German colony of Kamerun
29 The Antwerp bombardment begins
OCTOBER 1914
2 British Admiralty announces intention to mine North Sea areas
6 Japan seizes Marshall Islands in the Pacific
9 Antwerp surrenders to Germans. The Government removed to Astend
13 British occupy Ypres
14 Canadian expeditionary Force of 32,000 men lands at Plymouth.
15 Germans occupy Ostand Belgium government removed to Havre. France
NOVEMBER 1914
1 Monmouth and Good Hope British by cruisers are sunk by German squadron off Chili under command of Admiral Von Spee
5 Great Breton & France declare war on Turkey
5 Cyprus annexed by Great Breton
7 German garrison of Tsingtau surrender to Japanese
9 Emden, German cruiser, which had carried out raiding operations for two months,
is destroyed by Australian cruiser Sydney off the Cocos Islands, southwest of Java
16 Precipitation of sale of intoxicants in Russia enforced.
27 Czernowitz, capital of Bukowina, captured by Russians.
DECEMBER 1914
2 Belgrade occupied by Austrians
3 Cracow bombarded by Russians
8 Off the Falkland Isles, British squadron under command of Rear-Admiral Sturdee sinks
three of the German cruisers which had destroyed the Good Hope and Monmouth on Nov 1. the Dresden escapes
14 Austrians evacuate Belgrade.
16 German squadron bombards Hartlepool, Scarborough, and Whitby on east coast of England.
23 Siege of Cracow raised. Russians retire.
November 11, 1918
President Wilson made this statement to the Congress and the people of the United States:
“My fellow countrymen The armistice was signed this morning. Everything for which America fought has been accomplished. The war thus comes to an end”
A few hours before, he made this statement:
Germany had agreed to an armistice, terms of which were the hardest and most humiliating ever imposed upon a nation.
WW1 explainsWW11 and, in fact, caused it, in so far as one event causes another, wrote AJP Taylor in his “Origins of the 2nd WW.” The link between the two wars went deeper, Germany fought specifically in the 2WW to reverse the verdict of the first and to destroy the settlement that followed it.
Not even those who most vehemently oppose Mr. Taylor’s version of inter-war history will take great issue with that judgment. The 2WW, in its origin, nature and course, is inexplicable except by reference to the 1st; and Germany – which, whether or not it is to be blamed for the outbreak, certainly struck the first blow – undoubtedly went to war in 1939 to recover the place in the world it had lost by its defeat in 1918.
The World Wars killed more people, consumed more wealth, and inflicted more suffering over a wider area of the globe than any previous war.
The 2WW is the largest single event in human history, fought across 6 of the world’s seven continents and all its oceans. It killed fifty million human beings, devastated much of the heartland of civilization…
However, to connect the 2WW with the 1st is not, if the former is accepted as the cause of the latter, to explain either of them. Their common roots must be sought in the years preceding 1914, and that search has harnessed the energies of scholars for much of the century. Whether they looked for causes in immediate or less proximate events, their conclusions have had little in common. Historians on the winning side have on the whole chosen to blame Germany, in particular Germany’s ambition for world power, for the outbreak of 1914 and hence to blame Germany again – whatever failing attaches to the appeasing powers – for that of 1929. Until the appearance of Fritz Fischer’s heretical revision of the national version in 1967
WW1 1914 – 1918 The chief of the imperial general staff, that is, head of the entire British army during the greater part of the First World War was Sir William Robert Robertson, an Englishman of Scottish ancestry. Likewise, the British commander-in-chief of the forces in France and Flanders during most of WW1 was Edinburgh born, field Marshall Sir Douglas Hag. Haig’s troops, the largest British army that had ever taken the field , bore the brunt of the fighting in the war, and ultimately defeated what was then the mightiest war machine in the world

BOOKS:
Report of the Ministry, Overseas Military Forces of Canada 1918
History Of The World War by Francis A. March
WW11 1939 – 1945 Winston Churchill addresses the House of Common s…
“There is only one thing wrong with Scotsmen, there are too few of them.”

As the war began a defiant tone was set by the proudly Scottish queen of Great Britain (now known as the Queen Mother) when she was asked , as the bombs fell, whether she or her children would flee the country. Her answer should have told her enemies something. “The children will not leave unless I do. I shall not leave unless their The commander of the Allied naval forces on D-Day, 1944, was Adm. Bertram Ramsay. “Leading one of the attacks on a Normandy Beach, his piper Bill Millin by his side, was Simon Fraser, the seventeenth Lord Lovat and 22nd Chief of Clan Fraser Although it was against the rules for a piper to march into battle due to heavy losses during the First WW Lord Lovatt told Millin to do so anyway. He told his men to walk across the bridge rather than run. They practically strutted into the enemy with their piper playing away. Hitler was so outraged that he put 100 thousand marks on Lovett’s head. Each year Millin, now heavily decorated, returns to France at the request of the French people to re-enact the events. In the film. – The Longest Day, Peter Lawford played Lord Lovitt & Bill Millin played himself.

The concluding event of WW11 was held under an overcast sky on the morning of September 2, 1945, as allied military and naval leaders packed the decks of the USS Missouri, triumphantly anchored in Tokyo Bay. It is fitting that the small nation of Scotts, was well represented at the ceremony. Signing the document for Britain was Adam Bruce Fraser. Signing as the Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers was Gen. Douglas MacArthur. The sun broke through the clouds as if on cue, as Gen. MacArthur ended WW11 by stepping to the microphone and saying simply, “These proceedings are now closed.”
Information taken from:

BOOKS:
Report of the Ministry, Overseas Military Forces of Canada 1918
History Of The World War by Francis A. March

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